Epoca migratiilor
Ev mediu
The archaeology and history section includes 15 exhibition rooms, situated on the first and second floor of the Cultural Palace (entrance from the Dragalina Boulevard). The over 2000 exhibits illustrate the evolution of the region, in the context of Romanian national history Romania, beginning with the first tracks of human existence to the communist regime.
The most significant artifacts of the archaeological collection are on dispaly in the first seven rooms. Most of them derive from archaeological research undertaken by specialists and collaborators of the museum during the last century.
Tools made of silex and opal, discovered on the superior course of the Crisul Alb (Iosasel-Gurahont) and on the embankments of hills along the lower course of Mures (Conop, Zabrani, Cladova) represent the oldest evidences of human presence in our region. In time, they go back over 100.000 years.
There are a lot more discoveries dating from the neolithic age (Vth – IVth milleniums b.C.). These come from the entire territory of the county and illustrate the technical progress as well as the demographic encreasment of that period. One can admire artifacts of stone, bone, horn and pottery, discovered at Pecica, Sânpetru German and Sântana. Remarcable is a fragment of a huge vessel, decorated with a feminine figure, called ”Venus from Sânpetru German” (second half of the IVth millenium b.C.).
The most important Bronze Age (IIIrd – IInd milleniums b.C.) site from the west of Romania, Pecica-”Santul Mare”, is represented through a diversity of artifacts: pottery, stone, bone, horn and bronze tools and weapons (including casting forms), adornments, dress accessories and toys. The artifacts recovered from the bronze hoard discovered in Arad on the occasion of construction of the hotel “Astoria” and those from the Varsand site (among these the famous miniature clay carriage) are exposed as well. All these illustrate the high level of civilization reached by the first generations of Indo-Europeans settled in the region of lower Mures.
The image of the Hallstatt society (first half of the Ist millennium b.C.) from the Arad Plain is created through a few exceptional objects: a laurel lei from a tomb discovered over 100 years ago near the fortified settlement of Sântana (the biggest in south-east Europe, with a surface of 78 ha), an iron sword and a funeral urn, discovered on the territory of city. The list is completed with common household pieces: pots, grinders, instruments etc.
The part dedicated to the second half of the Ist millenium b.C. (Latène) contains the most relevant discoveries belonging to the Dacian and Celtic civilisations. On dispaly are pottery, tools, weapons and dress accessories from a Celtic necropolis from Aradul Nou (middle of IVth century b.C.), including the furnishing of a druid’s grave and other artifacts from Dacian settlements and fortifications from the lower Mures and Crisul Alb valleys (Varadia de Mures, Savârsin, Pecica, Berindia, Clit). The silver coins of the hoard discovered at Silindia (imitations of Macedonian tetradrahmas) are fascinating (627 pieces, weighing over 11 kg). The complementary material helps to complete the image regarding the power ascension of the Dacians in the first half of Ist century b.C., culminating with the reign of Burebista (around 80 - 44 b.C.).
A special room is dedicated to the Dacian-Roman wars (101-102, 105-106 a.D.). The most importanat pieces, brought to light during the archaeological researches from Pecica-”Santul Mare” (site known for the discoveries dating from the Bronze Age), the presumptive Ziridava, mentioned by Ptolemy, illustrate the level of civilization reached by the Dacian society from the region near the Roman conquest. Maps and copies of original objects explain the process and the importance of the Dacian wars.
The period of the roman province Dacia (106-271) is illustrated by a map, a model of a roman castle and several original artifacts as well, from Apulum (Alba Iulia), Micia, Aradul Nou, Lipova, Olari, Aquincum (Budapest), etc. Dacian and Sarmatian communities continued to live in our region, being strictly surveilled by the Romans.
In the migration period (IIIrd-Xth centuries) the territory between the Tisa, Crisul Alb and Mures was succesively dominated by Sarmatians, Goths, Huns, Gepidae, Avars and Slavs. Finds belonging to these people (pottery, weapons, dress accessories, adornments) are exposed next to those of the local Romanic population. Very illustrative is the model of a kiln from the pottery production center Arad-Ceala. This functioned in the period between the IIIrd-IVth centuries, producing pottery for all the communities settled in the Arad Plain (Sarmatians, Dacians, Germanic people).
A huge fresco presents the geo-political situation of the intracarpatian region in the Xth-XIth century. The exposed archaeological material illustrates the first Hungarian military expeditions (a Hungarian warriors’ tomb furnish from Siclau) and the withstand of Romanian political-military systems (finds from the earthen fortification of Arad-Vladimirescu).
The first written informations regarding the history of the region are preserved in the Legend of Saint Gerard (1035), facsimiles of several pages being exposed next to jewels, cult objects and pottery from the XIth-XIIIth centuries.
The first two rooms on the second floor are dedicated to the XIVth-XVIIth centuries, an unrest period during which the region of Arad was included successive under the swey of the Hungarian Kingdom, of the independent Principality of Transylvania (1541-1552, 1595-1599, 1601-1615), of the Sublime Ottoman Porte (1552-595, 1615-1687), of the Romanian voivode Mihai Viteazul (1599-1601), finally being conquered by the Habsburg troops (1687).
In the first room the occupations of the local population are illustrated through several original objects, documents, prints and models: a wood plough, a monoxyle, discovered in the ooze of Crisul Alb, fishing instruments (net, leister etc.), guilds’ tin and faience tankards (jugs), diplomas and seals of guilds, model of a water mill etc. The most important political events of the period are presented using maps, prints, documents, models and original objects (weapons, armours, parade objects).
The first room dedicated to modern history is dominated by the portraits of Horia, Closca and Crisan, the leaders of the biggest peasant rebellion (1784) in the European century of Enlightenment. The exposed documents present the spreading area of the rebellion in the valley of lower Mures and Crisul Alb. Next to these, several handicraft instruments, documents and plans are on display, giving an insight on the economical development of the region. The flag, the arm, the hunting horn and the diploma of Free Royal Town (1834), mark the liberation of the city from the medieval enslavement.
The principal point of attraction of this section is represented by the objects related to the Revolution from 1848-1849, first of all the personal objects of the 13 generals from the general staff of the Hungarian revolutionary army, executed beneath the walls of the Arad Fortress on the 6th of October 1849. A rich complementary material illustrates the events that took place in the Arad region.
Two political moments of major importance in the history of Romanians – the unification of the Romanian Principalities Moldova and Tara Româneasca (1859) and the attainment of independence (1877) – are illustrated through maps, documents, photos and weapons.
The high level of economical development, the emulation of the local cultural and political movement from the second half of the XIXth century are suggested with the help of many photos from that time, documents and objects exposed in the hallway towards the Memorandum room.
The presentation of the organization of labor movement in Arad emphasizes it’s correlation with the European social movement; the model of “Vlaicu 2” airplain is reminding the demonstrative flight from 1912 at Arad of the inventor engineer Aurel Vlaicu.
The Memorandum room contains photos and documents which evoke the political protest of Romanians at the court from Vienna (1892) regarding their national rights. Further more, the ample presentation of World War I, including the movement of volunteers and the Romanian emigration, have the role of preparing the visitor for understanding the historical process of collapse of the Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empires.
The room of Unification illustrates the accomplishment of constitution of the Romanian national state, underlining the important role of Arad in November 1918 in organizing the Great National Assembly in Alba Iulia on the 1st of December 1918. Flags, weapons, decorations, official documents of the national Romanian Guards and Councils of the period offer a suggestive image on the mechanism of the unification.
The period 1919-1947 is presented through the economical, political and cultural development of the region in the context of historical evolution of the Romanian kingdom.
The last three rooms, yet to be visited, narrate the events from December 1989 in Arad, which led to the fall of the communist regime. An impressive amount of photos, documents and threedimensional pieces evoke the most important moments of the period.
Epoca moderna
1 Decembrie 1918
Decembrie 1989